Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://www.jvascbras.org/journal/jvb/article/doi/10.1590/1677-5449.008217
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Original Article

Escleroterapia de safena associada a enxerto de pele no tratamento de úlceras venosas

Sclerotherapy of saphenous vein combined with skin grafting for treatment of venous ulcers

Alexandre Faraco de Oliveira, Horácio de Oliveira Filho

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Resumo

Contexto: Úlceras são a resultante final de varizes associadas a refluxo de veias safenas. Objetivo: Demonstrar a possibilidade de associar dois procedimentos, a escleroterapia com espuma de veias safenas e o enxerto de pele parcial, para o tratamento de pacientes com úlceras venosas relacionadas a refluxo de veias safenas. Métodos: Foram tratados 20 membros em 20 pacientes, todos com ulcerações relacionadas a refluxo de veias safenas. Realizamos o enxerto de pele expandida, seguido da escleroterapia ecoguiada com espuma de polidocanol nas veias associadas às úlceras, através de punção ou dissecção da veia. Resultados: Em todos os casos, houve melhora dos sintomas relacionados à úlcera e cicatrização da lesão. Em 11 casos, obtivemos a viabilidade do enxerto de pele por completo; em quatro casos, houve cicatrização de cerca de 50% da lesão; e nos cinco casos restantes, houve cicatrização de aproximadamente 75% da lesão. A primeira ultrassonografia de controle revelou esclerose completa dos vasos tratados em 19 dos 20 casos e esclerose parcial sem refluxo detectável em um caso. Na segunda ultrassonografia, realizada após 45 dias, observamos esclerose completa de 15 casos; em cinco casos, houve esclerose parcial, dos quais três sem refluxo detectável e dois com refluxo em segmentos isolados associados a varizes. A complicação mais frequente foi a pigmentação nos trajetos venosos, observada em 13 pacientes. Um caso apresentou trombose assintomática de veias musculares da perna. Conclusão: Essa associação de procedimentos consiste em uma opção válida com potencial para promover um tratamento mais breve e de menor custo.

Palavras-chave

úlcera de perna; úlcera varicosa; transplante de pele; escleroterapia; varizes.

Abstract

Background: Ulcers are the end result of varicose veins associated with reflux in saphenous veins. Objective: To demonstrate the possibility of combining two procedures, foam sclerotherapy of saphenous veins and skin grafting, to treat patients with venous ulcers related to reflux in saphenous vein. Methods: 20 limbs were treated in 20 patients. All patients had ulcers related to saphenous vein reflux. We performed the grafting with expanded skin, followed by administration of ultrasound guided polidocanol foam sclerotherapy in veins associated with ulcers, accessed by puncture or dissection of the vein. Results: In all cases there was improvement of ulcer-related symptoms and healing of the lesion. In 11 cases we achieved full skin grafting viability. In four cases there was healing of about 50% of the lesion and in the other five cases approximately 75% of the lesion healed. The first control ultrasonographic examination revealed complete sclerosis of the vessels treated in 19 of 20 cases, with partial sclerosis in one case, but no detectable reflux. The second ultrasonographic examination performed at 45 days showed complete sclerosis in 15 cases. In five cases there was partial sclerosis, without detectable reflux in three and with reflux in isolated segments associated with varicose veins in two. The most common complication was pigmentation along vein paths, observed in 13 patients. In one case there was asymptomatic thrombosis of muscle veins of the leg. Conclusion: This combination of procedures is a valid option, with the potential to provide quicker and less expensive treatment.

Keywords

leg ulcer; varicose ulcer; skin transplantation; sclerotherapy; varicose veins

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