Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://www.jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/1677-5449.000418
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Case Report

O papel da ecografia vascular no manejo das complicações associadas ao acesso venoso central para hemodiálise em pacientes oncológicos: relato de dois casos e revisão da literatura

The role of vascular echography in the management of complications associated with central venous access for hemodialysis in cancer patients: two case reports and literature review

Fernanda Costa Sampaio Silva

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Resumo

O implante de cateter venoso central para hemodiálise é comumente realizado em grandes centros e suas complicações estão, por vezes, associadas ao treinamento insuficiente de quem o realiza, mas também às condições clínicas do próprio doente. O presente estudo relata dois casos de intercorrências relacionadas ao uso do cateter de curta permanência para hemodiálise. No primeiro caso, houve inserção inadvertida da cânula na artéria subclávia esquerda e consequente trombose arterial, que foi conduzida conservadoramente, documentando-se uma boa perfusão colateral com ecografia vascular. O segundo caso ilustra o achado incidental de uma trombose venosa séptica central em paciente que havia feito uso do cateter por uma semana, optando-se por tratá-la com antibioticoterapia, anticoagulação plena e controle ecográfico. Em ambos os casos, a intervenção cirúrgica seria de alto risco devido ao prognóstico reservado dos doentes. A ultrassonografia vascular permitiu o monitoramento das situações clínicas e o emprego de terapêutica menos agressiva.

Palavras-chave

cateteres venosos centrais; trombose venosa; artéria subclávia; ultrassonografia; Doppler

Abstract

Central venous catheter implantation for hemodialysis is commonly performed in large centers and its complications are sometimes associated with insufficient training of those who perform it, but may also be related to the patient’s clinical condition. The present study reports two cases of complications related to use of a short-stay catheter for hemodialysis. In the first case, the cannula was inadvertently inserted into the left subclavian artery, causing arterial thrombosis, which was conservatively managed and good collateral perfusion was documented with vascular echography. The second case illustrates an incidental finding of Central Venous Septic Thrombosis in a patient who had used a catheter for a week, which was treated with antibiotic therapy, anticoagulation, and ultrasound control. In both cases, surgical intervention would have been high risk because of the patients’ poor prognosis. Vascular ultrasonography enabled monitoring of these clinical situations and use of less aggressive treatments.

Keywords

central venous catheters; venous thrombosis; subclavian artery; ultrasonography; Doppler

References

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