Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://www.jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/1677-5449.003418
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Case Report

Tratamento endovascular de fístula tronco arterial braquiocefálico-traqueal: relato de caso e revisão de literatura

Endovascular management of tracheo-innominate artery fistula: a case report and literature review

Alexandre de Tarso Machado, Manuela Cristina Ribeiro Dias Barroso

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Resumo

A fístula do tronco arterial braquiocefálico-traqueal é uma complicação pouco frequente da traqueostomia, com incidência entre 0,1 e 1%, porém com alta mortalidade nos casos não tratados. Sinais precoces incluem desde sangramento autolimitado a hemorragia maciça com choque hipovolêmico. A espessura da cânula de traqueostomia, seu posicionamento junto à parede traqueal e a pressão do balonete traqueal podem lesionar a mucosa e precipitar seu desenvolvimento. Descrevemos o caso de paciente do sexo feminino, 14 anos, traqueostomizada aos oito anos após traumatismo craniencefálico. Evoluiu após esse período com estenose subglótica e necessidade de sessões de dilatação por seis anos. No quinto ano das sessões, apresentou hemoptise de repetição, inicialmente tratada por cirurgia com prótese de politetraflouroetileno expandido. Um ano depois, apresentou novo sangramento com repercussão hemodinâmica, controlada pela técnica endovascular, e nova cirurgia foi programada em caráter eletivo. Após a segunda cirurgia, houve seis meses de acompanhamento clínico ambulatorial, sem novas complicações.

Palavras-chave

traqueostomia; stent; sangramento; procedimentos endovasculares; tratamento de emergência

Abstract

Tracheo-innominate artery fistula (TIF) is a rare complication of tracheostomy, with incidence ranging from 0.1 to 1%, but mortality is high in untreated cases. Early signs range from self-limited bleeding to massive hemorrhage with hypovolemic shock. The caliber of the tracheostomy cannula, its position in contact with the tracheal wall, and tracheal cuff pressure can traumatize the mucosa and trigger development of a TIF. We describe the case of a 14-year-old female patient who had been tracheostomized at the age of eight because of head trauma. She later developed subglottic stenosis requiring dilation sessions for six years. During the fifth year of these sessions, she presented repetitive hemoptysis, initially treated by surgery to implant an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene graft. One year later, she had an intense hemorrhage, which was controlled using endovascular techniques followed by definitive surgery, performed electively. The patient was followed up for six months, without complications.

Keywords

tracheostomy; stent; hemorrhage; endovascular procedures; emergency treatment.

References

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