Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://www.jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/1677-5449.004218
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Original Article

Origem da artéria tireoidea superior: sob o bisturi do cirurgião

Origin of superior thyroid artery: under the surgeon’s knife

Ranjith Sreedharan, Lalu Krishna, Ashwija Shetty

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Resumo

Contexto: O suprimento arterial principal para a glândula tireoide provém das artérias tireoideas superior e inferior, que têm origem na artéria carótida externa e no tronco tireocervical, respectivamente. O nervo laríngeo externo faz um percurso bem próximo à origem da artéria tireoidea superior em relação à glândula tireoide. A artéria tireoidea superior é clinicamente importante em cirurgias da cabeça e do pescoço. Objetivos: Localizar a origem da artéria tireoidea superior, considerando a ampla variabilidade descrita na literatura; e oferecer informações sobre possíveis variações em sua origem, devido à importância disso para procedimentos cirúrgicos realizados no pescoço. Métodos: A origem da artéria tireoidea superior foi estudada dissecando-se 60 espécimes de hemipescoço adulto de cadáveres humanos doados ao Departamento de Anatomia. Resultados: A maior incidência observada foi da artéria tireoidea superior com origem na artéria carótida externa (88,33%), enquanto a origem na bifurcação da artéria carótida comum ocorreu em apenas 8,33%. No entanto, em 3,33% dos casos, a artéria tireoidea superior teve origem na artéria carótida comum, e em um único caso, o nervo laríngeo externo não cruzou o tronco da artéria tireoidea superior em nenhum momento, embora tenha cursado ventral e paralelamente a essa artéria. Conclusões: É importante descartar origem anômala da artéria tireoidea superior e confirmar sua relação com o nervo laríngeo externo antes da ligadura da artéria em cirurgias da tireoide, para evitar efeitos iatrogênicos. Além disso, como origens anômalas da artéria tireoidea superior são apenas variantes anatômicas, o conhecimento detalhado dessas variações é decisivo para cirurgias da cabeça e do pescoço.

Palavras-chave

artéria carótida externa; artéria tireoidea superior; nervo laríngeo superior; variação anatômica

Abstract

Background: The major arterial supply to the thyroid gland is from the superior and inferior thyroid arteries, arising from the external carotid artery and the thyrocervical trunk respectively. The external laryngeal nerve runs in close proximity to the origin of the superior thyroid artery in relation to the thyroid gland. The superior thyroid artery is clinically important in head and neck surgeries. Objectives: To locate the origin of the superior thyroid artery, because wide variability is reported. To provide knowledge of possible variations in its origin, because it is important for surgical procedures in the neck. Methods: The origin of the superior thyroid artery was studied by dissecting sixty adult human hemineck specimens from donated cadavers in a Department of Anatomy. Results: The highest incidence observed was origin of the superior thyroid artery from the external carotid artery (88.33%), whereas origin from the common carotid bifurcation only occurred in 8.33%. However, in 3.33% of cases, the superior thyroid artery originated from the common carotid artery and in a single case, the external laryngeal nerve did not cross the stem of the superior thyroid artery at all, but ran ventral and parallel to the artery. Conclusions: It is important to rule out anomalous origin of superior thyroid artery and verify its relationship to the external laryngeal nerve prior to ligation of the artery in thyroid surgeries, in order to prevent iatrogenic injuries. Moreover, because anomalous origins of the superior thyroid artery are only anatomic variants, thorough knowledge of these is decisive for head and neck surgeries.

Keywords

external carotid artery; superior thyroid artery; superior laryngeal nerve; anatomic variation

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