Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://www.jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/1677-5449.0055
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Original Article

Alternative grafts for brachioaxillary hemodialysis access: 1-year comparative results

Opções de enxerto para fístula bráquio-axilar: resultados comparativos em um ano de seguimento

Sergio Quilici Belczak; Sergio Ricardo Abrão; Vinicius Bertoldi; Thiago José Cavaquini; Luiz Felipe Mansano Slavo; Igor Rafael Sincos; Ricardo Aun

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Many chronic renal patients lack autologous veins in the upper limbs suitable for construction of arteriovenous fistulas for hemodialysis. Alternative fistula options for these patients should be evaluated and compared.OBJECTIVE: To compare different types of grafts used for brachioaxillary access in hemodialysis patients in terms of their patency and complication rates.METHOD: Forty-nine patients free from arterial system abnormalities and with no venous options for creation of arteriovenous fistulae in the arm and/or forearm underwent brachioaxillary bypass with implantation of autologous saphenous vein, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), or PROPATEN(r) grafts. Patients were assessed by Doppler ultrasonography at 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery,.RESULTS: The four first saphenous vein grafts had failed by 3 or 6 months after surgery. The autologous saphenous vein group was discontinued at the beginning of the study because of extreme difficulty in achieving puncture and hematoma formation. Failure rates of PTFE and PROPATEN(r) grafts did not differ after 3 (p = 0.559), 6 (p = 0.920), or 12 months (p = 0.514). A log-rank test applied to cumulative survival of grafts at 1 year (0.69 for PTFE, 0.79 for PROPATEN(r)) detected no significant differences (p = 0.938). There were no differences in complications resulting in graft failure between the two types of prosthetic graft.CONCLUSION: Autologous saphenous vein grafts do not appear to be a good option for brachioaxillary hemodialysis access because of difficulties with achieving puncture. Brachioaxillary fistulae constructed using PTFE or PROPATEN(r) grafts exhibited similar patency and complication rates. Further studies with large samples size are warranted to confirm our findings.

Keywords

arteriovenous fistula, renal dialysis, saphenous vein, polytetrafluoroethylene, heparin

Resumo

CONTEXTO: Há inúmeros pacientes renais crônicos sem veias autólogas nos membros superiores para confecção de fístulas arteriovenosas para realização de hemodiálise. As opções de fístula nestes pacientes devem ser avaliadas e comparadas.OBJETIVO: Comparar diferentes enxertos para acesso braquioaxilar em pacientes hemodialíticos, em relação a permeabilidade e taxas de complicação.MÉTODO: Um grupo de 49 pacientes, sem alterações no sistema arterial e sem opções venosas para criação de fístula arteriovenosa no braço e/ou antebraço, foi submetido a procedimentos cirúrgicos para implante de diferentes enxertos: veia safena autóloga, enxertos de PTFE e PROPATEN(r).RESULTADOS: Os quatro primeiros implantes de veia safena falharam no terceiro e no sexto mês após a cirurgia. Interrompeu-se o uso de veia safena autóloga no início do estudo pela extrema dificuldade de punção e pela formação de hematoma. Não houve diferenças nas taxas de falha dos enxertos de PTFE e PROPATEN(r) após três (p = 0,559), seis (p = 0,920) e 12 meses (p = 0,514) de seguimento. O teste de Logrank aplicado à sobrevida cumulativa dos enxertos por um ano (0,68 para PTFE; 0,79 para PROPATEN(r)) não relevou diferenças (p = 0,938). Não foram encontradas diferenças entre os enxertos prostéticos em relação ao tipo de complicação que determinou as falhas.CONCLUSÃO: O enxerto de veia safena autóloga parece não ser é uma boa opção para acesso braquioaxilar em hemodialíticos, já que implica em dificuldade na punção. Os enxertos de PTFE e PROPATEN(r) em fistula braquioaxilar resultaram em permeabilidade e taxas de complicações similares. Estudos com amostras maiores são necessários para confirmar nossos achados.

Palavras-chave

Fístula arteriovenosa, diálise renal, veia safena, politetrafluoretileno, heparina

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