Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://www.jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/1677-5449.007515
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Original Article

Topical vs. intravenous administration of tranexamic acid in knee arthroplasty and prevalence of deep venous thrombosis: a randomized clinical trial

Uso tópico versus intravenoso de ácido tranexâmico na artroplastia de joelho e prevalência de trombose venosa profunda: estudo clínico randomizado

Ari Zekcer; Ricardo Del Priori; Clauber Tieppo; Ricardo Soares da Silva; Nilson Roberto Severino

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Abstract

Abstract Background Tranexamic acid (TXA) is widely used in orthopedic surgery to reduce perioperative bleeding. Since TXA inhibits fibrinolysis, there is concern that it may increase the risk of thromboembolic events. Objectives To verify the prevalence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) in patients receiving TXA during total knee arthroplasty and to compare topical with intravenous administration of the drug. Methods All patients admitted for total knee arthroplasty due to primary arthrosis between June and November of 2014 were recruited consecutively. Thirty patients were randomized to a “topical group” (1.5 g TXA diluted in 50ml saline sprayed over the area operated, before tourniquet release), 30 to an “intravenous group” (20mg/kg TXA in 100 ml of saline, given at the same time as anesthesia), and 30 to a control group (100 ml of saline, given at the same time as anesthesia). All patients had duplex ultrasound scans of the legs on the 15th postoperative day. Results Deep venous thrombosis events occurred in five of the 90 patients operated (one out of 30 in the topical group [3.3%], four out of 30 in the control group [13.3%], and zero in the intravenous group). All were confirmed by duplex ultrasound scans and all were asymptomatic. Prevalence rates of DVT were similar between groups (p = 0.112 for control vs. intravenous; p = 0.353 for control vs. topical; and p =1.000 for intravenous vs. topical, according to two-sided exact tests). Conclusions Both topical and intravenous administration of TXA are safe with regard to occurrence of DVT, since the number of DVT cases in patients given TXA was not different to the number in those given placebo.

Keywords

tranexamic acid, arthroplasty, knee replacement, fibrin modulating agents, antifibrinolytic agents, venous thrombosis

Resumo

Resumo Contexto O ácido tranexâmico é amplamente utilizado em cirurgia ortopédica para reduzir a hemorragia perioperatória. Como o ácido tranexâmico inibe a fibrinólise, há uma preocupação de que ele possa aumentar o risco de eventos tromboembólicos. Objetivos Verificar se o uso do ácido tranexâmico é seguro em relação à prevalência de trombose venosa profunda em pacientes submetidos a artroplastia total do joelho, e comparar as administrações tópica e intravenosa desse medicamento. Métodos Todos os pacientes consecutivamente admitidos para artroplastia total do joelho devido a artrose primária entre junho e novembro de 2014 foram recrutados. Os pacientes foram randomizados em um “grupo tópico” (1,5 g de ácido tranexâmico diluído em 50 ml de solução salina cobrindo toda a área operada antes de liberar o torniquete), um “grupo intravenoso” (20 mg/kg de ácido tranexâmico em 100 ml de solução salina no momento da anestesia) e um “grupo controle” (100 ml de solução salina com a anestesia). No 15º dia de pós-operatório, todos os pacientes foram submetidos a ultrassonografia vascular com Doppler de membros inferiores, independentemente de sintomas. Resultados Dos 90 pacientes operados, apenas cinco apresentaram trombose venosa profunda (um no grupo tópico e quatro no grupo controle). Conclusões Tanto a administração tópica quanto a intravenosa de ácido tranexâmico são seguras em termos de ocorrência de trombose venosa profunda, pois o número de casos de trombose venosa profunda foi semelhante quando comparamos os pacientes que receberam ácido tranexâmico e os que receberam placebo. Novos estudos, com amostras maiores, são necessários para confirmar esse achado.

Palavras-chave

ácido tranexâmico, artroplastia, artroplastia do joelho, moduladores de fibrina, antifibrinolíticos, trombose venosa

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