Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://www.jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/1677-5449.202201632
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Review Article

Variations of venous drainage of the thyroid gland and their surgical implications: a narrative review

Drenagem venosa da glândula tireoide e suas implicações cirúrgicas: revisão narrativa

Rajani Singh

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Abstract

Diseases of the thyroid are common worldwide, so knowledge of its normal and variant anatomy, especially of the veins of thyroid, is essential for safe and successful surgery involving the anterolateral neck. The aim of this study is to consolidate all information related to venous drainage of the thyroid gland as a ready reference for vascular and endocrine surgeons. The study was conducted at the Department of Anatomy and the literature search was carried out using the Pubmed, Scielo, Researchgate, Medline, and Scopus databases. Various terms related to the thyroid gland and its venous drainage were used to explore the literature. The literature review revealed that the superior and middle thyroid veins have the fewest variations in terms of course and termination while the inferior thyroid vein has the most variations in terms of course and termination. Detailed knowledge of normal and variant anatomy of the thyroid veins is of utmost use for vascular surgeons performing anterolateral neck surgery, especially tracheostomy, a lifesaving procedure, minimizing intraoperative and postoperative complications and morbidity and mortality.

Keywords

anatomy, thyroid gland, thyroid veins, venous drainage, anterolateral neck

Resumo

Resumo: As doenças da tireoide são comuns em todo o mundo; portanto, o conhecimento tanto da anatomia normal quanto de variações anatômicas, especialmente das veias tireóideas, é essencial para uma cirurgia segura e bem-sucedida da região anterolateral do pescoço. O objetivo deste estudo é consolidar todas as informações relacionadas à drenagem venosa da glândula tireoide para pronta referência a cirurgiões vasculares e endócrinos. O estudo foi realizado no Departamento de Anatomia, e a pesquisa bibliográfica foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, SciELO, ResearchGate, MEDLINE e Scopus. Vários termos relacionados à glândula tireoide e sua drenagem venosa foram considerados para busca na literatura. O levantamento da literatura revelou que as veias tireóideas superior e média apresentam as menores variações em termos de trajeto e terminação, enquanto a veia tireóidea inferior apresenta as maiores variações. O conhecimento detalhado da anatomia normal e de variações anatômicas das veias tireóideas é de extrema utilidade para os cirurgiões vasculares na realização de cirurgia anterolateral do pescoço, especialmente traqueostomia, um procedimento que salva vidas, minimizando complicações intra e pós-operatórias, morbidade e mortalidade.
 

Palavras-chave

anatomia, glândula tireoide, veias tireóideas, drenagem venosa, pescoço anterolateral

References

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Submitted date:
12/23/2022

Accepted date:
02/05/2023

Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular (SBACV)"> Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular (SBACV)">
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