Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://www.jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/1677-5449.202300242
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Original Article

Effects of aerobic and combined training on pain-free walking distance and health-related quality of life in patients with peripheral artery disease: a randomized clinical trial

Efeitos do treinamento aeróbico e combinado na distância percorrida sem dor e na qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde em pacientes com doença arterial periférica: um ensaio clínico randomizado

Eduardo Lima Garcia; Adamastor Humberto Pereira; Marcio Garcia Menezes; Alexandre Araújo Pereira; Ricardo Stein; Leandro Tolfo Franzoni; Luiz Claudio Danzmann; Antônio Cardoso dos Santos

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Abstract

Background: Decreased walking ability in patients with peripheral arterial disease is often a clinical problem and limits the quality of life and daily activities of these subjects. physical exercise is important in this scenario, as it improves both the daily walking distance and the ability to withstand intermittent claudication related to the limitations of the peripheral disease.

Objectives: Our aim was to compare the effects of two types of exercise training (aerobic training and aerobic training combined with resistance exercises) on pain-free walking distance (PFWD) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in a sample composed of patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD).

Methods: Twenty patients with claudication symptoms were randomized to either aerobic control (AC) N= 9, or combined training (CT) N= 8, (24 sixty-minute sessions, twice a week). The total walking distance until onset of pain due to claudication was assessed using the 6-minute walk test and HRQoL was measured using the WHOQOL-bref questionnaire (general and specific domains) at baseline and after training. We used generalized estimating equations (GEE) to assess the differences between groups for the PFWD and HRQoL domains, testing the main group and time effects and their respective interaction effects. P values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant.

Results: Seventeen patients (mean age 63±9 years; 53% male) completed the study. Both groups experienced improvement in claudication, as reflected by a significant increase in PFWD: AC, 149 m to 299 m (P<0.001); CT, 156 m to 253 m (P<0.001). HRQoL domains also improved similarly in both groups (physical capacity, psychological aspects, and self-reported quality of life; P=0.001, P=0.003, and P=0.011 respectively).

Conclusions: Both aerobic and combined training similarly improved PFWD and HRQoL in PAD patients. There are no advantages in adding strength training to conventional aerobic training. This study does not support the conclusion that combined training is a good strategy for these patients when compared with classic training.

Keywords

peripheral artery disease, pain-free walking distance, health-related quality of life, exercise, intermittent claudication

Resumo

Contexto: A diminuição da capacidade de marcha em pacientes com doença arterial periférica é frequentemente um problema clínico e limita a qualidade de vida e as atividades diárias desses indivíduos. O exercício físico é importante nesse cenário, pois melhora tanto a distância caminhada diária quanto a capacidade de suportar a claudicação intermitente relacionada às limitações da doença periférica.

Objetivos: Comparar os efeitos do treinamento aeróbico (TA) e do treinamento aeróbico combinado com exercícios de resistência (TC) na distância percorrida livre de dor (DPLD) e na qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde (QVRS) em pacientes com doença arterial periférica (DAP).

Métodos: Vinte pacientes com sintomas de claudicação foram randomizados para TA ou TC. Os treinamentos foram realizados em 24 sessões, duas vezes por semana. A DPLD foi avaliada por meio do teste de caminhada de 6 minutos, e a QVRS foi medida pelo instrumento da avaliação de qualidade de vida da Organização Mundial da Saúde (WHOQOL-BREF), no início e após o treinamento. Para avaliar as diferenças entre os grupos para DPLD e os domínios da QVRS, foi utilizado o modelo de equações de estimativa generalizada, testando os efeitos principais do grupo e tempo, bem como os respectivos efeitos de interação. Valores de p < 0,05 foram considerados estatisticamente significativos.

Resultados: Dezessete pacientes (idade média: 63±9 anos; 53% do sexo masculino) completaram o estudo. Ambos os grupos apresentaram melhora na claudicação, refletida por um aumento significativo na DPLD: grupo controle aeróbico - de 149 m para 299 m (P < 0,001); grupo de treinamento combinado - de 156 m para 253 m (P < 0,001). Os domínios da QVRS também melhoraram de forma semelhante em ambos os grupos (capacidade física, aspectos psicológicos e qualidade de vida autorreferida; P = 0,001, P = 0,003 e P = 0,011, respectivamente).

Conclusões: Ambos os treinamentos melhoraram de forma semelhante a DPLD e a QVRS em pacientes com DAP. Não há vantagens em associar o treinamento de força ao treinamento aeróbico convencional. O estudo não permite concluir que o TC é uma boa estratégia para esses pacientes quando comparado ao treinamento clássico.
 

Palavras-chave

doença arterial periférica, distância percorrida livre de dor, qualidade de vida relacionada à saúde, exercício, claudicação intermitente

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Submitted date:
04/03/2023

Accepted date:
05/22/2023

Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular (SBACV)"> Sociedade Brasileira de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular (SBACV)">
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