Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://www.jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/S1677-54492006000100002
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Original Article

O papel da oxigenação hiperbárica na estrutura do fígado e baço após ligadura das veias hepáticas: estudo em ratos

The role of hyperbaric oxygenation in the liver and spleen structure after hepatic vein ligation: study in rats

Ricardo Costa-Val; Tarcizo Afonso Nunes; Roberto Carlos de Oliveira e Silva

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Resumo

OBJETIVO: Avaliação morfológica do fígado e baço de ratos submetidos à oxigenoterapia hiperbárica após a ligadura das veias hepáticas. MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 30 animais machos adultos da espécie Holtzman, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos de 15 animais cada, assim designados: grupo 1 - ligadura das veias hepáticas; grupo 2 - ligadura das veias hepáticas associada à oxigenoterapia hiperbárica. Todos os animais foram submetidos à anestesia geral por meio de solução contendo cloridrato de cetamina (40 mg/ml) e cloridrato de meperidina (10 mg/ml) na dose de 50 mg/kg/peso, laparotomia mediana e ligadura das veias hepáticas. A oxigenoterapia hiperbárica foi aplicada nos animais do grupo 2, a partir da oitava hora do pós-operatório, por 120 minutos, sendo 90 minutos sob pressão de 2,5 atmosferas e 15 minutos no início e final da terapêutica, para promover a compressão e descompressão gradativa no período de 20 dias consecutivos. No 21° dia de pós-operatório, os animais foram mortos por inalação de éter e submetidos à laparotomia e extirpação dos fígados e baços para exame histológico. Foram comparados os resultados da histologia hepática e esplênica aplicando-se o teste exato de Fisher, considerando-se a diferença significante de P < 0,05. RESULTADOS: Os exames histológicos dos fígados e baços dos animais dos grupos 1 e 2 mostraram as seguintes alterações: presença de trombose nas veias hepática, porta e centro-lobular em cinco (33,3%) animais do grupo 1 e ausência no grupo 2; presença de necrose dos hepatócitos caracterizada como acentuada em sete animais (46,7%) e leve em oito (53,3%) animais do grupo 1, enquanto que, em todos os animais do grupo 2, esta alteração foi caracterizada como leve; presença de células de Kupffer muito proeminentes e hipertrofiadas em 14 (93,3%) animais do grupo 1 e pouco proeminentes e hipertrofiadas em todos os animais do grupo 2; congestão da polpa vermelha considerada acentuada em seis (40%) e moderada em nove (60%) animais do grupo 1 e em todos os animais do grupo 2; hemossiderose moderada ou acentuada em 14 (93,3%) animais do grupo 1 e leve em todos os animais do grupo 2. As análises estatísticas realizadas entre os dois grupos mostraram diferenças significativas em todas a variáveis estudadas (P < 0,05). CONCLUSÕES: A oxigenoterapia hiperbárica em ratos submetidos à ligadura das veias hepáticas atenuou os efeitos deletérios e precoces sobre o fígado e o baço, analisada pela histologia destes órgãos.

Palavras-chave

Oxigenoterapia hiperbárica, ratos, histologia do fígado e baço

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Liver and spleen morphologic evaluation of rats submitted to hyperbaric oxygen therapy after hepatic vein ligation. METHOD: Thirty Holtzman adult male rats were used, distributed into two groups of 15 animals: group 1 - hepatic vein ligation; group 2 - hepatic vein ligation associated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. All animals received general anesthesia by a solution composed of ketamine chloride (40 mg/ml) and meperidine chloride (10 mg/ml) in a dose of 50/mg/weight, and were submitted to median laparotomy and hepatic vein ligation. Group 2 animals were submitted to hyperbaric oxygen therapy, 8 hours after the operation, 90 minutes at 2.5 atmosphere pressure and 15 minutes at the onset and end of the therapy, in a total of 120 minutes, in order to promote the gradual compression and decompression in 20 consecutive days. On the 21st preoperative day, the animals were sacrificed by ether inhalation and submitted to laparotomy and stripping of liver and spleen for histological study. The results of the histological study of livers and spleens were compared using Fisher's exact test. Statistically significant difference was considered when P < 0.05. RESULTS: The histological studies made in the livers and spleens of animals from both groups showed the following alterations: presence of thrombosis of hepatic, portal and central lobular veins in five (33.3%) group 1 animals and absence in group 2 animals; very extensive necrosis of liver cells in seven (46.7%) group 1 animals, and light in eight (53.3%), whereas for all group 2 animals such alteration was considered light; Kupffer cells developed and hypertrophied in 14 (93.3%) group 1 animals and slightly developed and hypertrophied in all group 2 animals; high congestion of the spleen purple in six (40%) and moderate in nine (60%) group 1 animals, whereas all group 2 animals had moderate congestion; moderate or severe hemosiderosis in 14 (93.3%) group 1 animals and mild hemosiderosis in all group 2 animals. The statistical analyses performed between both groups showed significant differences (P < 0.05) for all variables. CONCLUSIONS: The hyperbaric oxygen therapy applied in rats submitted to hepatic vein ligation mitigated its early deleterious effects on the liver and spleen, which was confirmed by the histological study.

Keywords

Hyperbaric oxygen, rats, histological study of liver and spleen

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