Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://www.jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/S1677-54492006000400003
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Original Article

O processo aterosclerótico em artérias de coelhos submetidos a dieta suplementada com gema de ovo: modelo experimental de baixo custo

Atherosclerotic lesion formation in rabbits fed on egg yolk-supplemented diet: an inexpensive experimental model

Rodrigo Gibin Jaldin; Hênio Arruda Falcão Filho; Júlio Lopes Sequeira; Winston Bonetti Yoshida

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Resumo

OBJETIVO: Verificar a aterogenicidade do modelo de hipercolesterolemia por suplementação alimentar com gema de ovo em coelhos e seu uso como modelo de aterosclerose experimental de baixo custo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram utilizados 14 coelhos divididos em dois grupos de sete animais: grupo controle (G1), que recebeu ração comercial ad libitum, e grupo tratado (G2), que foi alimentado com dieta suplementada com gema de ovo. Ambos os grupos foram alimentados por 90 dias. Foram realizadas dosagens do perfil lipídico dos animais nos momentos 0, 30, 60 e 90 dias. Ao término do período experimental, os animais foram submetidos a eutanásia e retirada da aorta e de seus ramos diretos para realização de estudo anatomopatológico. RESULTADOS Apenas no grupo G2 houve aumento significativo nos níveis de colesterol total e frações. Ao exame macroscópico, foram observadas estrias gordurosas no arco aórtico e aorta abdominal e, à microscopia, acúmulos lipídicos discretos na íntima da aorta abdominal, renal, carótida, transição toracoabdominal e femoral. Portanto, a dieta com gema de ovo provocou aterosclerose leve no animal de experimentação e alterações equivalentes àquelas provocadas pelo colesterol purificado comercial quando fornecido em baixa dosagem. Assim sendo, a gema de ovo pode ser utilizada como fonte de colesterol alimentar de baixo custo em modelos de aterosclerose experimental.

Palavras-chave

Aterosclerose, colesterol, aorta, coelhos, dieta, dislipidemias

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To observe whether an inexpensive dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia model in rabbits using a chow diet supplemented with egg yolks can be used to develop atherosclerotic lesions in animals. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Fourteen rabbits were divided into two groups of seven animals: control group (G1), in which the rabbits were fed standard chow diet; and experimental group (G2), in which the rabbits were fed standard chow supplemented with egg yolks. Both groups were fed for 90 days. The lipid profile of all animals was measured at 0, 30, 60 and 90 days. At the end of the experimental period, euthanasia was performed and the aorta and its direct branches were excised to perform the histopathological examination. RESULTS: There was a significant increase in plasma total cholesterol and cholesterol fractions only in group G2. The macroscopic examination showed fatty streaks in the aortic arch and abdominal aorta. Histological analyses revealed minimal lesions consisting of macrophages foam cells in the abdominal, renal, carotid and diaphragmatic aorta and femoral arteries. Therefore, the egg yolk diet developed mild atherosclerosis in rabbits and induced the same characteristics and extent of the lesions obtained by low-dosage purified cholesterol. Thus, egg yolk can be used as an inexpensive source of cholesterol in models of experimental atherosclerosis.

Keywords

Atherosclerosis, cholesterol, aorta, rabbits, diet, dyslipidemias

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