Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://www.jvascbras.org/journal/jvb/article/doi/10.1590/S1677-54492010000200004
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Original Article

Gestação e varizes de membros inferiores: prevalência e fatores de risco

Pregnancy and lower limb varicose veins: prevalence and risk factors

Newton de Barros Junior; Maria Del Carmen Janeiro Perez; Jorge Eduardo de Amorim; Fausto Miranda Junior

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Resumo

Contexto: Durante e após a gestação, as varizes dos membros inferiores têm aspectos peculiares, tais como o seu aparecimento, a precocidade de seu desenvolvimento, a intensidade e, no puerpério, a rapidez com que regridem. Esses aspectos têm influenciado os estudos para a compreensão dessa patologia. Objetivo: Verificar a prevalência das varizes dos membros inferiores em gestantes e os fatores de risco mais relevantes envolvidos. A prevalência na gestação é alta, atingindo cerca de 70%, quando se consideram todos os tipos de varizes. Essa alta prevalência decorre principalmente do aumento nas taxas dos estrógenos e progestágenos que ocorre durante a gravidez. Material e método: Foram avaliadas 352 gestantes no período pré-natal, durante 14 meses, escolhidas ao acaso. A doença varicosa foi diagnosticada clinicamente e classificada segundo os critérios de Widmer em varizes tronculares, reticulares e telangiectasias e reclassificadas pela classificação CEAP, segundo o critério clínico. Os resultados de prevalência e fatores de risco foram submetidos às análises univariada e multivariada. Resultados: A prevalência da doença varicosa, quando considerados todos os tipos de varizes, foi de 72,7% (256 gestantes). As 96 gestantes (27,3%) que não apresentaram doença varicosa foram consideradas, para análise estatística, como controle. Os fatores de risco de significância, após análise multivariada, foram: antecedente familiar positivo e idade. Conclusão: A prevalência da doença varicosa durante a gestação e os fatores de risco envolvidos indicam a necessidade de divulgação dessa patologia entre os profissionais envolvidos na prevenção e manutenção da saúde da mulher, especialmente aquelas em período fértil.

Palavras-chave

Varizes, gestação, epidemiologia, veias varicosas

Abstract

Background: During and after pregnancy, lower limb varicose disease presents specific features that have influenced the conduction of studies designed to provide a better understanding of the condition. Such features include the appearance of lower limb varicose veins, their early development and intensity, and their rapid regression after delivery. Objective: To assess the prevalence of lower limb varicose disease during pregnancy and to identify the main associated risk factors. Prevalence of varicose disease during pregnancy is high, affecting almost 70% of pregnant women considering all types of varicose disease. This high prevalence is mainly caused by the increase in the estrogen and progesterone levels during pregnancy. Material and method: We analyzed 352 pregnant women during prenatal follow-up. The subjects were randomly selected during a 14-month period. Varicose disease was clinically identified and classified according to Widmer's criteria: trunk varicose veins, reticular varicose veins, and telangiectasias; being reclassified according to the criteria of the CEAP clinical classification. The results of prevalence and risk factors were statistically analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Results: Considering all types of varicose veins, prevalence of varicose disease was 72.7% (256 pregnant women). Only 27.3% (96) of pregnant women did not have varicose disease (C0), and this group was considered the control group. After multivariate analysis, the main risk factors were: family history and pregnant women's age. Conclusion: The high prevalence of varicose disease and the associated risk factors suggest the need of providing the health professionals involved in women's health care, especially during the fertile period, with information on this disease.

Keywords

Pregnancy, varicose veins, epidemiology, veins

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