Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
https://www.jvascbras.org/article/doi/10.1590/S1677-54492006000100005
Jornal Vascular Brasileiro
Original Article

Tratamento endovascular da doença obstrutiva carotídea em pacientes de alto risco: resultados imediatos

Endovascular treatment of carotid obstructive disease in high risk patients: immediate results

Ricardo Augusto Carvalho Lujan; Leonardo Aguiar Lucas; Andréa de Fátima Gracio; Armando de Carvalho Lobato

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Resumo

OBJETIVO: Tratamento endovascular - angioplastia carotídea com stent (ACS) - tem se mostrado como opção atual no tratamento da estenose da artéria carótida em pacientes considerados de alto risco para endarterectomia de carótida (ECA). Este trabalho reporta a experiência do Instituto de Cirurgia Vascular e Endovascular (ICVE) de São Paulo nos casos de ACS em pacientes de alto risco. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo retrospectivo descritivo baseado na análise dos prontuários de 113 pacientes (84 homens e 29 mulheres) submetidos a 130 procedimentos de ACS pelo ICVE, no período de março de 2000 a junho de 2004. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 74 anos (variando de 51 a 86 anos). Os pacientes assintomáticos (55%) apresentavam estenose > 75%, enquanto nos sintomáticos (45%) as lesões encontradas foram > 70%. Foi indicado ACS nos seguintes pacientes: alto risco para ECA (45%), reestenose pós-ECA (15%), estenose carotídea severa bilateral (14%), oclusão da carótida contralateral (12%), bifurcação alta (no nível ou acima da segunda vértebra cervical) (6%), estenose pós-radioterapia (5%) e pescoço hostil (3%). As lesões encontradas localizavam-se na bifurcação carotídea (46%), carótida interna (32%), origem da artéria carótida comum (9%), tronco braquiocefálico (8%) e artéria carótida comum (5%). RESULTADO: Foi observado um total de sete eventos neurológicos (cinco casos de acidente vascular encefálico e dois pacientes que apresentaram ataque isquêmico transitório). A taxa de óbito foi de 0%. A taxa total de complicações (acidente vascular encefálico, acidente isquêmico transitório, óbito) foi de 5,3%. CONCLUSÃO: ACS demonstrou ser um procedimento com baixa taxa de complicações, sendo uma opção segura e eficaz nos pacientes de alto risco para ECA.

Palavras-chave

Artéria carótida, estenose, angioplastia, alto risco cirúrgico

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Endovascular treatment - carotid artery stenting (CAS) - has been recommended as the current option in the treatment of carotid artery disease in high risk patients for carotid endarterectomy surgery (CEA). This study reports our experience at Instituto de Cirurgia Vascular e Endovascular de São Paulo with regard to CAS in high risk patients. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A retrospective descriptive study was performed based on the analysis of 113 medical charts of patients (84 males and 29 females) submitted to 130 CAS from March 2000 to June 2004. Mean age was 74 years (range, 51-86 years). Asymptomatic patients (55%) presented stenosis > 75%, whereas in symptomatic patients (45%) stenosis was > 70%. Indication for CAS included: high risk for CEA (45%), recurrent stenosis post-CEA (15%), contralateral internal carotid artery stenosis (14%), contralateral carotid occlusion (12%), high cervical bifurcation (6%), post-radiation stenosis (5%), anatomically limited access (3%). The lesions were located at: carotid bifurcation (46%), internal carotid artery (32%), common carotid artery origin (9%), brachiocephalic trunk (8%), and common carotid artery (5%). RESULT: Seven neurological events were observed (five cases of cerebral vascular accident and two patients who had a transitory ischemic attack). Death rate was 0%. Overall complication rate (cerebral vascular accident, transitory ischemic attack, death) was 5.3%. CONCLUSION: CAS has proved to be a procedure with a low complication rate. Therefore, it is a safe and efficient option in high risk patients for CEA.

Keywords

Carotid artery, stenosis, angioplasty, high surgical risk

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